Industrial and Systems Engineering Review <p>Industrial and Systems Engineering Review (ISER) is an open access journal (ISSN# 2329-0188)&nbsp;aimed at the advancement of industrial and systems engineering theory and practice as applied to any enterprise system. We seek to publish review articles, regular research papers containing new theoretical foundations, case studies, as well as manuscripts describing novel applications of existing techniques to new problem domains.</p> en-US <p>Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:</p> <ol> <li class="show">Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a&nbsp;<a href="" target="_new">Creative Commons Attribution License</a>&nbsp;that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</li> <li class="show">Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</li> <li class="show">Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See&nbsp;<a href="" target="_new">The Effect of Open Access</a>).</li> </ol> <p>The copyediting stage is intended to improve the flow, clarity, grammar, wording, and formatting of the article. It represents the last chance for the author to make any substantial changes to the text because the next stage is restricted to typos and formatting corrections. The file to be copyedited is in Word or .rtf format and therefore can easily be edited as a word processing document. The set of instructions displayed here proposes two approaches to copyediting. One is based on Microsoft Word's Track Changes feature and requires that the copy editor, editor, and author have access to this program. A second system, which is software independent, has been borrowed, with permission, from the Harvard Educational Review. The journal editor is in a position to modify these instructions, so suggestions can be made to improve the process for this journal.</p> (Daryl L. Santos) (Anand Subramanian) Fri, 09 Apr 2021 18:21:12 +0000 OJS 60 Foreword by Guest Editor COL Paul F. Evangelista, PhD FOREWORD This issue of ISER contains timely and relevant research and analysis related to the global pandemic. It is unsurprising that the industrial and systems engineering community, especially professionals affiliated with SISE and ISER, rose to the challenge and applied their expertise to improve understanding and support decisions related to a wide variety of COVID-19 related problems. Here is a brief glimpse of the contributions in this issue: Evangelista, Clark, Dabkowski, and Kloo detail a wide variety of analytical and modeling methods used to provide situational awareness and modeling in support of the unstructured decisions faced by the United States Military Academy. Krishnan and Maru use simulation and machine learning methods to explore the sensitivities of various supply chains affected by COVID-19. Khaswaneh and Nagarur examined health supply chains during demand surges and offer linear optimization methods designed to minimize costs across the full spectrum of supply chain operations. Desai and Ball provide an invaluable review of literature that examines stress created by workplace assigned mobile communication devices, a timely examination given the growth of remote work during the global pandemic. Choi and Staley discuss the delicate relationships between the construction industry and national emergencies, primarily by exploring the literature and research related to the interconnections between COVID-19 and the construction industry. Lastly, Santos discusses a linear optimization approach focused on scheduling and assignment of a workforce when variable demand and availability constraints apply. The breadth and impact of industrial and systems engineering applied to problems related to COVID-19, a global pandemic without comparison, reinforces the reach and world-changing significance of our discipline. This issue provides a small sample from the vast number of problems and decisions resolved with ideas and methods that we practice and research as industrial and systems engineers. COL Paul F. Evangelista Chief Data Officer United States Military Academy Taylor Hall, 5th Floor 845-857-8204 (cell) Paul Evangelista Copyright (c) Fri, 09 Apr 2021 17:56:27 +0000 Modeling and Analysis in Support of Organizational Decisions During the COVID-19 Pandemic The 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) disrupted economic and social systems on an unprecedented scale. Organizational leaders faced unstructured problems that required novel analysis and evidenced-based decision-making approaches. This paper explains several analytical tools and problem-solving methodologies used at the United States Military Academy at West Point to support decision-making related to operational activities and future planning. While many of the tools apply basic analytical methods, the novelty of this paper lies in the unique application of the tools, visual presentation of data analytics, and the explanation of the contextual circumstances that prompted the development of these tools. Paul Evangelista, Nicholas Clark, Matthew Dabkowski, Ian Kloo Copyright (c) 2021 Industrial and Systems Engineering Review Fri, 09 Apr 2021 17:07:21 +0000 Analyzing the Manufacturing Supply Chain Performance for Urgent Item During COVID-19 Outbreak As COVID-19 pandemic spreads in different regions with varying intensity, supply chains (SC) need to utilize an effective mechanism to adjust spike in both supply and demand of resources, and need techniques to detect unexpected behavior in SC at an early stage. During COVID-19 pandemic, the demand of medical supplies and essential products increases unexpectedly while the availability of recourses and raw materials decreases significantly. As such, the questions of SC and society survivability were raised. Responding to this urgent demand quickly and predicting how it will vary as the pandemic progresses is a key modeling question. In this research, we take the initiative in addressing the impact of COVID-19 disruption on manufacturing SC performance overwhelmed by the unprecedented demands of urgent items by developing a digital twin model for the manufacturing SC. In this model, we combine system dynamic simulation and artificial intelligence to dynamically monitor SC performance and predict SC reaction patterns. The simulation modeling is used to study the disruption propagation in the manufacturing SC and the efficiency of the recovery policy. Then based on this model, we develop artificial neural network models to learn from disruptions and make an online prediction of potential risks. The developed digital twin model is aimed to operate in real-time for early identification of disruptions and the respective SC reaction patterns to increase SC visibility and resilience. Ali Arishi, Krishna K Krishnan, Vatsal Maru Copyright (c) 2021 Industrial and Systems Engineering Review Fri, 09 Apr 2021 17:22:30 +0000 Production Planning and Emergency Inventory for Demand Surge in Health Supply Chains for Pandemics like COVID-19 This research considers modeling production and inventory quantities in the presence of demand surge due to pandemics like COVID-19. The aim of this research is to help health care organizations better prepare and respond to a demand surge due to a pandemic. A large-scale pandemic such as COVID-19 can cause an overwhelming demand for urgent medical supplies on very short notice. Well-established supply chain planning and modeling are necessary to avoid any national level or company health supply chain problems resulting from demand shortages. This paper addresses the issues from a supply chain perspective. The need to be prepared for any surge in demand is addressed in terms of emergency inventories, including those of Work-in-Process and finished goods. Linear Programming models are developed to minimize the costs of production, inventories, and transportation of goods from one stage to the next stage. Several scenarios are tested out for various levels of demand, cost, and capacities. Amro Khaswaneh, Nagen Nagarur Copyright (c) 2021 Industrial and Systems Engineering Review Fri, 09 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0000 Workplace Assigned Mobile Communication Devices and Employee Stress A literature review of the important role played by stress in workplace performance, the correlation between workplace assigned mobile communication devices and stress as well as measures that can be taken to alleviate such stress is presented in this paper. Workplace stress can cause problems ranging from mild anxiety to serious problems which could cause death. Stress can also have an adverse effect on the productivity and morale of employees. The modern workplace is rife with a large variety of stressors. With the rapid advance in communications technology, mobile communication devices are new possible stressors which have become widely prevalent over the past few years. These devices allow employees to be in constant communication with workplace activities. They are invaluable tools for employees who travel frequently and who are required to be on call. This paper seeks to present a review of current literature that investigates the possible correlation between workplace stress and mobile communication devices. Managers that require employees to monitor their communication device after work hours and while on vacation could be placing undue stress on their employees’ well-being. Some employees feel that they will miss out on something or get into trouble if they are not in constant communication. A separation between work and personal life must be present to reduce stress among employees and managers. Such a separation is vital to the health and well being of all concerned. The role played by workplace assigned mobile communication devices has been studied in this paper. This is a timely addition to the literature in this area in light of the increasingly ‘mobile’ nature of the modern workplace. Anoop A Desai, Michael Ball Copyright (c) 2021 Industrial and Systems Engineering Review Fri, 09 Apr 2021 17:40:39 +0000 Safety and Health Implications of COVID-19 on the United States Construction Industry The construction industry is an essential U.S. business sector, yet it suffers from an elevated risk for work-related fatalities and injuries. The COVID-19 pandemic has only exacerbated this risk, as well as shone a light on the severe economic/financial/labor burdens and safety/health concerns the sector has faced. As such, the purpose of this review paper is to synthesize the safety and health issues associated with COVID-19 pandemic in the construction industry, and summarize the challenges and opportunities for construction stakeholders in implementing COVID-19 safety and health measures in the construction industry. This paper has explored the challenges in construction and COVID-19; COVID-19 knowledge, preventative behaviors, and risk perception among construction workers; recommendations/practical implications/preventive measures; and COVID-19 education in compliance/guidance, strategies to combat impacts of COVID-19 pandemic, smart digital technologies, and worker wellbeing and work-related quality of life (e.g., mental health). It is warranted that the construction industry needs to take better steps in preparing for future, man-made or natural disaster events, and subsequent acute and chronic disease risk, in order to yield a healthier/safer construction workplace. Sang D Choi, John Staley Copyright (c) 2021 Industrial and Systems Engineering Review Fri, 09 Apr 2021 17:44:25 +0000 A Mathematical Model for In-Person Office Assignment During COVID-19 The global pandemic that is COVID-19 has altered our world as we know it. Educational systems have been seriously affected, businesses – whether “essential” or not – have been severely stressed, how people socialize has, perhaps forever, been changed, and telecommuting is the new norm. The purpose of this paper is to discuss a situation wherein a company was having difficulty in scheduling their in-person office staffing in a move to allow rotational schedules for their employees to decongest their office when an entirely telecommuting operation was not possible. Due to the different types of employees, their various work-related constraints, and the need to minimize the number of bodies in the office while addressing minimum coverage necessary to perform the company’s daily activities, a quick solution to their scheduling/assignment needs was not obvious or trivially obtained. As such, mathematical models, specifically, integer programming assignment models, were developed and ultimately solved using the Python/Gurobi solver to address their scheduling needs. This paper will describe the constraints faced by the company and the models developed to solve their tricky assignment problem. Daryl Santos Copyright (c) 2021 Industrial and Systems Engineering Review Fri, 09 Apr 2021 17:48:52 +0000