The Influence of Gangs in Central America with Respect to Woman’s Wellbeing

  • Caneel Dixon
  • Christine Krueger
Keywords: Gangs, Central America, Women's Wellbeing, Societal Influence, Systems Dynamics

Abstract

The purpose of this paper is to identify the influence of gangs in Central America on women and the communities that the gangs control. This examination incorporates system dynamics modeling techniques, which includes using Vensim software to show both Causal Loop and Stock and Flow Diagrams. This research evaluates the influence of a community’s power over its citizens through its ability to enforce anti-gang policies and the strength of local community organizations. Comparing five different Central American countries (Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua) allowed the model to provide data to create policy recommendations for the entire region in addition to each of the five countries. Our conclusions suggest that thorough increasing policies restricting gang activities and promoting women’s involvement in society (via higher levels of education, female employment, and female role models), communities will grow stronger and be less affected by the violence and influence of gangs.

References

Applebaum, A., & Mawby, B. (2018). Gang Violence as Armed Conflict: A New Perspective on El Salvador. Georgetown Institute for Women, Peace, and Security (GIWPS).
Barathe, R. (2018, December 6). Central America: Eradicating Gender Violence is Vital to State Security. Inter Press Service.
Crime Rates. (n.d.). Numbeo, Retrieved from www.numbeo.com/crime/
Destrooper, T. (2014). Come Hell or High Water: Feminism and the Legacy of Armed Conflict in Central America. Brill.
Garcia, D., & Høvring, R. (2018, September 27). 10 things you should know about the violence in Central America. Retrieved from Norwegian Refugee Council: https://www.nrc.no/news/2018/september/10-things-you-should-know-about-the-violence-in-central-america/
Godoy, J. (2020). Respect and Dignity for Women Lacking in Latin America. Retrieved from
https://news.gallup.com/poll/178427/respect-dignity-women-lacking-latin-america.aspx
Health Status of the Population: Mortality in the Americas. (n.d.) Health in the Americas 2017, Pan American Health Org.
Institute for Economics & Peace. (2019). Global Peace Index 2019: Measuring Peace in a Complex World. Sydney: Institute for Economics & Peace. Retrieved from http://visionofhumanity.org/reports
Jütersonke, O., Muggah, R., & Rodgers, D. (2009). Gangs, Urban Violence, and Security Interventions in Central America. Security dialogue, 40(4-5). pp. 373-397.
Rodrigues, T., & Labate, B. C. (2016). Prohibition and the War on Drugs in the Americas: an analytical approach. In Drug
Policies and the Politics of Drugs in the Americas (pp. 11-32). Springer, Cham.
Saferworld. (2017). Building inclusive peace: gender at the heart of conflict analysis. London: Saferworld.
Santacruz Giralt, M. L. (2010). Seconds in the Air: Women Gang-Members and Their Prisons. San Salvador, El Salvador:
University Institute of Public Opinion: Central American University.
Shifter, M. (2012). Countering Criminal Violence in Central America. Council on Foreign Relations: Center for Preventive Action. Council on Foreign Relations Press.
Sterman, J. D. (2000). Business Dynamics: Systems Thinking and Modeling for a Complex World. Boston: Irwin.
United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. (2012). Transnational Organized Crime in Central America and the Caribbean:
A Threat Assessment. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC).
UNHCR. (2019). Global Trends: Forced Displacement in 2018. United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR): The UN Refugee Agency.
United Nations Security Council. (2000). Resolution 1325. United Nations Security Council.
Vensim. (n.d.). Reference Modes. Retrieved from https://www.vensim.com/documentation/usr20.htm
World Bank Group. (2018). Towards Equal? Women in Central America. Washington, DC: World Bank.
Published
2021-03-06